Water Hardness - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Thus, the pH of soft water can be quite variable. Most supply waters have a pH of between 6.5 and 8.0, and the common captive aquatic vertebrates can adapt to water within this pH range. The effects of water hardness on plumbing materials will vary with mineral concentration, temperature and pH.

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Water Handbook - Preboiler & Industrial Boiler Corrosion

In high-purity systems, raw water in-leakage (e.g., condenser leakage) lowers boiler water pH when magnesium hydroxide precipitates, resulting in corrosion, formation of atomic hydrogen, and initiation of hydrogen attack. Coordinated phosphate/pH control can be used to minimize the decrease in boiler water pH that results from condenser leakage.

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Boiler water - Wikipedia

Boiler water is liquid water within a boiler, or in associated piping, pumps and other equipment, that is intended for evaporation into steam.The term may also be applied to raw water intended for use in boilers, treated boiler feedwater, steam condensate being returned to a boiler, or boiler blowdown being removed from a boiler.

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Water & its treatment - SlideShare

Feb 11, 2015 · UNIT: III WATER & Its Treatment WATER FOR DOMESTIC USE & TREATMENT OF WATER FOR MUNICIPAL SUPPLY: The following are the specification of water drinking purpose: This water should be clear, colourless and odourless. The water must be free from pathogenic bacteria and dissolved gases like H2S. The optimum hardness of water must be 125 ppm and pH

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Boiler Water Treatment Guidelines; Columbia Boiler Co

The pH factor is the most important factor influencing scale formation and the corrosive tendencies of boiler water. The pH should be maintained between a minimum of 10.5 and a maximum of 11.0 to prevent acidic corrosion of boiler tubes and plates, and to provide for the precipitation of scale forming salts before scale is deposited.

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Boiler Water Treatment - Home - Association of Water

• The pH of the feed water should be below 9.2, to prevent copper loss in the system • Optimum pH in the feed water should be 8.5-9.2 Deaerator Ratings • Deaerators are categorized by the quantity of oxygen that they are able to remove at boiling point. The categories are; Preheat Boiler Feed (Atmospheric Feed Water

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Boiler feedwater - Wikipedia

The treatment of boiler water can be put into two parts. These are internal treatment and external treatment. (Sendelbach, p. 131) The internal treatment is for boiler feed water and external treatment is for make-up feed water and the condensate part of the system. Internal treatment protects against feed water hardness by preventing

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How to Measure Water Hardness - water hardness test kit guide

Water hardness or other water test kits are used in a very wide variety of applications beyond simply checking a drinking water supply. Some other uses include balancing the water hardness of pools and spas, testing the condensate in a steam boiler system or in water operated cooling towers, and checking the proper operation of water softeners.

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Boiler feed water - Lenntech

The boiler receives the feed water, which consists of varying proportion of recovered condensed water (return water) and fresh water, which has been purified in varying degrees (make up water).The make-up water is usually natural water either in its raw state, or treated by some process before use.

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Unit 1 water_technology - SlideShare

Nov 11, 2012 · Hardness of Water• Hardness in Water is characteristic that prevents thelathering of soap thus water which does not produce latherwith soap solution readily, but forms a white curd is calledhard water.• hence the selection ofphosphate has to be based on the pH of the boiler feed water. NaH 2 PO 4 (acidic in nature), Na 2 HPO 4

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